Class VI- Chapter 2- Latitudes

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TOPIC: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

  • These are the angular distance of a place from the equator.
  • All latitudes are in the form of concentric circles.
  • They are also knows as parallels.
  • 0 º- Equator
  • 23.5 º N – Tropic of Cancer
  • 23.5 º S – Tropic of Capricorn
  • 66.5 º N – Arctic Circle
  • 66.5 º S – Antarctic Circle
  • 23.5 º N – 23.5 º S : Torrid Zone ( It is a heat surplus zone)
  • 23.5 º N – 66.5 º N : Temperate Zone ( Heat Deficient)
  • 23.5 º S – 66.5 º S : Temperate Zone ( Heat Deficient)
  • 66.5 º N – 90 º N : Frigid Region ( Heat Deficient)
  • 66.5 º S – 90 º S : Frigid Region ( Heat Deficient)
  • The surplus and deficiency of heat is responsible for the pressure and wind system.
  • In the Torrid Zone, the sun’s rays travel a shorter distance, strike directly and hence they are very intense in this region. So it has a surplus of heat.
  • In case of Frigid and Temperate regions, the sun’s rays travel a larger distance, strike at an angle and hence they are dispersed with lesser intensity. So it has a deficiency of heat.
  • Equator passes through 13 countries- 
  • Ecuador (Quito), Colombia (Bogotá), Brazil (Brasília) → South America
  • Gabon (Libreville), Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville),  Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa), Uganda (Kampala), Kenya ( Nairobi), Somalia ( Mogadishu), Sao Tome & Principe (São Tomé), Maldives (Malé) → Africa
  • Indonesia (Jakarta)→ Asia
  • Kiribati (South Tarawa)→ Oceania
  • Tropic of Cancer passes through-
  • Mexico (Mexico City),Bahamas (Nassau)→ North America
  • Western Sahara (Laayoune), Mauritania (Nouakchott), Mali (Bamako), Algeria (Algiers),
    Niger (Niamey), Libya (Tripoli), Egypt (Cairo)→ Africa
  • Saudi Arabia (Riyadh), United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi), Oman (Muscat), India (New Delhi), Bangladesh (Dhaka), Myanmar (Naypyidaw), China (Beijing), Taiwan (Taipei)→ Asia.
  • Tropic of Capricorn passes through:
  • Chile (Santiago), Argentina (Buenos Aires),Paraguay (Asuncion), Brazil→ South America
  • Namibia (Windhoek), Botswana (Gaborone), South Africa ( Pretoria, Cape Town, Bloemfontein), Mozambique (Maputo), Madagascar (Antananarivo)→ Africa
  • Australia (Canberra)
  • French Polynesia (Papeete)→ Oceania
  • Arctic Circle passes through:
  • Alaska, Canada (Ottawa), Greenland (Nuuk)→ North America
  • Norway (Oslo), Sweden (Stockholm), Finland (Helsinki), Iceland (Reykjavik)→Europe
  • Russia (Moscow)→ Eurasia
  • Tropic of Cancer passes through eight states of India:
  • Gujarat (Gandhinagar), Rajasthan (Jaipur), Madhya Pradesh (Bhopal), Chattisgarh (Raipur), Jharkhand (Ranchi), West Bengal (Kolkata), Tripura (Agartala), Mizoram (Aizawl).
    What causes the various seasons?
  • Earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5 º from it’s axis.

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  • Earth revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit. So, it will not be always at the same distance from the sun.

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  • At position 3, there will be summer in the Northern Hemisphere and winter in the Southern Hemisphere. One day in the N.H. will be the longest day of the year. ( late June)- This is known as Summer Solstice.
  • At position 1, S.H. is towards the sun and N.H. is away from the sun. In the summer of the S.H. , one day in late December will be the longest. This is known as Winter Solstice.
  • At positions 2 & 4, the length of day and nights will be equal. This is known as Equinox. ( Spring Equinox in March and Autumn Equinox in September)
  • So variations in lengths of daytime and night time from season to season are due to Earth’s revolution around the Sun in an elliptical manner.

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